Info

The Benefit of Hindsight | Inspiring Aspiring Entrepreneurs

If you've ever thought about starting a business, this is the show for you. Each week, host Aaron Bushell interviews entrepreneurs and small business owners who left the 9-5 and went to work for themselves and asks, looking back with the benefit of hindsight, what went right and what would they have done differently.
RSS Feed
The Benefit of Hindsight | Inspiring Aspiring Entrepreneurs
2016
February
January


2015
September
August
July
June
May


All Episodes
Archives
Now displaying: 2015
Sep 30, 2015

Just a quick update this week since I don't have a new interview, but I didn't want to go two weeks without uploading something. 

Check out and subscribe to the podcast on:

iTunes | Stitcher RSS

If you need help finding or rating the show on iTunes, click here: www.aaronbushell.com/itunes

To get new episodes delivered straight to your inbox, subscribe to my mailing list at www.TheBenefitOfHindsight.com.

Sep 16, 2015

Janelle King | JK Design and The Workroom

My guest this week is Janelle King, Wichita interior designer and owner of JK Design and The Workroom, both located in Wichita, KS. Janelle is an interior designer with a special eye for creating unique decorations, but she is also a serial entrepreneur with an incredible talent for recognizing business opportunities and taking advantage of them.  She is also passionate about living and working in Wichita, KS and has made Wichita one of the unique selling propositions that makes her business so successful in the Air Capital.  When it comes to interior design, you can't do any better than Janelle King and JK Design.

The really neat part of Janelle's business, however, is how she recognized an opportunity to create a new business when her own needs were not being met. As an interior designer, she often found herself in need of custom designs for her customers. However, there were not enough talented seamstresses in the area and the ones who were in business were overworked and could not take on more work.  Never one to throw her hands up, Janelle got to work and created The Workroom, a custom design sewing shop for any home decoration you might need- pillows, draperies, bedding, upholstery and much more.  Her shop is an eclectic mix of tastes, and the proof of her skill is easy to see in the decorations she has completed.

I sat down with Janelle to talk about her businesses, how and why she got started and why she always seems to be in the right place at the right time.  She also had one more surprise for me- she's starting ANOTHER business!  This time, Janelle purchased a 1969 Volkswagon Bus, painted it to look like the Wichita Flag and she plans to drive it around town to sell great, unique Wichita gear.  Check out the video here:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=whAx4__hzBI

Thanks to you, Janelle, for your commitment to the city of Wichita. Your drive and passion are an inspiration to us all.

Where To Find Janelle

If you want to check out Janelle's storefront, The Workroom is located at:

150 N Cleveland
Wichita, KS 67214
(316) 295-4520

Follow her on Twitter at @TheWorkroomICT check out her Facebook page at https://www.facebook.com/theworkroomICT and https://www.facebook.com/JKDesignICT.  Be sure to check out her 1969 VW Bus as it rolls around town starting September 25th.  Details here: https://www.facebook.com/events/813969132054256/.

Show Notes

4:05 Why did Janelle decide to start JK Design?
7:58 How did her work as an interior designer lead her to open The Workroom?
11:00 Janelle defines her success as luck and momentum.
11:48 What was it like when she first opened her doors for business?
14:50 What challenges did she face in the beginning?
16:07 What is the difference between managing people in a large company versus a small business?
18:01 What has been Janelle's most effective method of showing her employees they are valued?
20:30 What was the single best thing she did in her first year?
21:36 What does a typical day at The Workroom look like?
24:58 With the benefit of hindsight, what is one thing Janelle wishes she had done
differently?
29:04 With the benefit of hindsight, what is one thing Janelle really did right?
29:42 How did her side idea become one of the driving forces behind her business?
31:20 How has Wichita pride factored into her business success?
32:20 What is the Flag Swag 1969 VW Bus and where can you find it?
33:10 What is going on with JK Design, The Workroom and Flag Swag?
34:35 Where can you find The Workroom?
35:15 Janelle shares some parting advice.

 

Check out and subscribe to the podcast on:

iTunes | Stitcher RSS

If you need help finding or rating the show on iTunes, click here: www.aaronbushell.com/itunes

To get new episodes delivered straight to your inbox, subscribe to my mailing list.

Sep 9, 2015

My interview this week is with Roger Smeltzer, owner of Vision Commercial Real Estate. Roger and I went to college together and I have known him for nearly two decades now. Roger was the Recruitment person for our fraternity and I do not think I can remember a time when Roger wasn't calling someone to try to get them out to see if they would join our fraternity. His tenacity was legendary. Of course, this was back before cell phones were ubiquitous, so he carried around a wireless land line in his pocket or in his hand- everywhere. He had it in the kitchen, he had it in the bathroom, he had it when we were drinking on the back porch. The greatest invention of Roger's life had to have been the cell phone with unlimited minutes. After college, Roger started down a different career path before realizing that was not what he wanted to do and then he took a BIG leap of faith, leaving a comfortable high paying sales job to move into a completely different industry, and eventually founding Vision Commercial.  

NOTES FROM THE SHOW 

5:00 How did Roger start Vision Commercial, what was the story behind him leaving his comfortable salaried sales position to go into a completely different industry?
10:36 What was it like, going from a successful career to becoming a sole proprietor, with all of the weight on your shoulders?
14:00 What does the day to day operation of the business look like now?
20:20 What is important about the relationships he has built and why is the relationship less important than being great at executing?
29:40 What is one thing he wishes he had done differently?
35:41 What is one thing he did right?
38:35 What is going on with Vision today, where can we find them and one last piece of advice.

Thank you for sharing your story with Hindsight Nation, Roger!

Check out Vision Commercial at www.visioncommercial.com or check out the Vision Commercial Facebook Page. 

Please leave the show a review on iTunes.

Don't know how? Check this out: www.aaronbushell.com/iTunes

Subscribe: iTunes | Stitcher | RSS

Aug 26, 2015

Episode 016 | Jake Williams, Fireshark Gaming | Immersive Video Game

What Is An Immersive Video Game Experience?

Jake Williams is one of the owners of Fireshark Gaming, which can only be described as an immersive video game experience.  In other words, you are IN the game, walking around, controlling your character and battling against your friends.  If you are like me and you grew up watching movies like Tron or War Games, then this is like a dream come true.  I can hardly do it justice by writing about it.  Instead, here is a video showing some scenes from inside the game.

Youtube link

Cool, right?  I have been there myself and it's pretty amazing to walk into a room and see a game going on all around you.  When I say it is an immersive video game, I mean that the game is being played on the walls and floor of the room you are in, projected by 18 high-powered projectors suspended from the ceiling.  You are literally walking around in the game.  

This week, I got to sit down with Jake Williams. Jake has been with Fireshark from the beginning, helping inventor and co-owner Kent Johnson with design and testing of the protoype, picking a location, working with a contractor to build out the building and then taking over the day to day operations of the business as General Manager.  Not a thing goes on at the business that Jake is not aware of. Even more interesting, Jake left a pretty comfortable job on a trading desk at Koch Industries to step out on a limb and try his hand at entrepreneurship. But Jake isn't thinking about what he left behind.  His focus is on growing Fireshark into a world-wide phenomenon.  He's starting on the right foot.

 

Show Notes:

7:20 What is an immersive video game?

10:02 Why did you quit your day job to try your hand at running a business?

12:03 What challenges have you faced in starting a business like this?

15:06 What was the first day of business like?

17:34 What does the day to day operation of the business look like?

20:00 What is something you wish you had done differently?

21:04 What is something you really did right?

22:35 How long does it take to develop a new video game from start to finish?

24:15 What is the biggest expense for the business?

28:33 What is going on with Fireshark Gaming right now?

 

Where Can You Find Fireshark Gaming?

The storefront is located in northeast Wichita, KS near the intersection of 21st and Greenwich.  If you drop in and try it out, let Jake know and he will get you your first game for FREE.

11310 E 21st St, Wichita, KS 67206

(316) 260-2711

Twitter: @Firesharkgaming

Facebook: Fireshark Gaming

Youtube: Wichita East Fireshark Gaming

Check out and subscribe to the podcast on:

iTunes | Stitcher | RSS

 

If you need help finding or rating the show on iTunes, click here: www.aaronbushell.com/itunes

To get new episodes delivered straight to your inbox, subscribe to my mailing list.

Aug 19, 2015

Episode 015 | Aman Mann, Procurify | Procurement Software

My guest this week is Aman Mann, Co-Founder and CEO of Procurify, a Canadian technology startup that is a fully featured cloud-based procurement software purchasing platform for managing direct and indirect spending of a company’s supply chain. 

Behind the title is a man who strives to constantly improve, not just himself but those around him. Aman is very involved in the tech and startup community and is often a coach/mentor/speaker for events such as Startup Weekend, BCTIA, Startup NEXT, post secondary and their affiliate organizations and more. Recently Aman drove Procurify to raise a $4 million seed round from Nexus Ventures, Point Nine Capital, BDC of Canada, Ryan Holmes, and Steve Johnson. His unique personality coupled with a philosophy of living life with good intentions and helping others before himself is the reason behind his success. Like the values Procurify is built upon, Aman believes a successful business begins, above all else, with a supportive and dedicated team. Aman’s goals with Procurify are to support a great company with a strong team, provide an excellent product experience and always be achieving outstanding customer success. 

Show Notes:

4:30 What is Procurify?

7:32 What did Aman do before he founded Procurify?

12:35 What was the biggest challenge he faced in getting the business off the ground? 15:20 What was it like pitching venture capital investors to get funding for the business?

19:00 What are the Core Values at Procurify and how do they effect the way the team runs the company?22:48 What does the day to day operation of the business look like?25:40 What does he wish he had done differently?
27:26 What is one thing that he did right?28:32 What is going on with Procurify right now, where can you find the company online and a special discount offer for new Procurify listeners.

Thank you for sharing your story with Hindsight Nation, Aman.

Where Can You Find Procurify?

Online at www.Procurify.com

On Twitter @Procurify

One Facebook www.facebook.com/procurify

And if you are interested in their procurement software, let them know you heard about it on The Benefit of Hindsight and you will get a 20% discount.

Check out and subscribe to the podcast on:

iTunes | Stitcher | RSS

To get new episodes delivered straight to your inbox, subscribe to my mailing list.

Aug 12, 2015

Episode 014 | Brent Bressler, Bressler Ventures | Buy and Sell a Business

My guest this week is Brent Bressler, owner of Bressler Ventures.  Brent is a Primary Business Consultant and a Certified Estate Planning Professional, what he does with Bressler Ventures is help people buy and sell a business. Throughout his fifteen year career owning Bressler Ventures, Brent has worked with hundreds of business owners which gives him unique insight into life as a small business owner and solopreneur.  He has seen first hand what happens when someone tries to sell their business and has helped both buyers and sellers get a fair deal when they want to buy and sell a business.

I wanted to talk to Brent today to get his advice on something that many startup businesses might be thinking in the back of their mind, but few put any effort into.  What is the end game?  It's easy to focus all of your attention on starting the business, growing the business and managing the business, but what about the eventuality of selling the business?  That is where Brent comes in.  Brent is able to bring an independent outside perspective to a business deal, which makes him and his advice incredibly valuable.

Between Brent's advice on how to buy and sell a business and Russell Carswell's advice on how to manage the finances of your business, potential small business owners should have all of the information they need to both start and sell their company.

Show Notes:

3:35 What is Bressler Ventures and what does Brent do?


5:22 What was it like to start Bressler Ventures?

6:43 What was the number one challenge he faced when starting his business?


9:20 What does the day to day operation of Bressler Ventures look like?


14:48 What is one thing he wishes he would have done differently?


17:36 What is one thing he got right?


20:01 What is going on with Bressler Ventures right now?

Where Can You Find Bressler Ventures?

If you want to buy and sell a business, call Brent for a free consultation.  You can check out his website at www.BresslerVentures.com or call his office at (316) 744-8020.

Check out and subscribe to the podcast on:

iTunes | Stitcher | RSS

To get new episodes delivered straight to your inbox, subscribe to my mailing list.

Jul 28, 2015

This week my guest is Andy Gough, owner of Reverie Roasters Coffee here in Wichita, KS.  When Andy started his coffee house more than two years ago, he knew he would need to become a part of the Wichita Coffee Community.  Andy's passion, not just for coffee, but for the Wichita Community comes through in the success his business has had during the last two years.

6:00 Andy talks about how it feels to be leaving the corporate 9-5 to focus solely on his business.
9:45 Andy started the business with a partner, but had to part ways when they did not agree on how to run the company.
11:10 The right people makes a successful team and Andy talks about building his team from 2 people to 16 in two years.
13:15 What was the first day of business like?
14:45 Andy shouts out to Denise Neil and talks about when his business experienced sudden growth.
17:00 What does the day to day operation of Reverie Roasters look like?
21:20 What is something Andy would have done differently?
23:50 What is something Andy did right?
26:00 What is going on with Reverie Roasters right now and where can they be found?

 The episode show notes can be found here: Episode 013 Show Notes

Check out their website at www.ReverieRoasters.com

Like the Reverie Roaster Facebook Page

And follow their Twitter account at @ReverieRoasters

 

To get new episodes delivered straight to your inbox, subscribe via email.

Jul 22, 2015

This week my guest is Dr. Dustin Weber, owner of Weber Family Chiropractic office.  Dr. Weber is unlike a lot of people because in coming out of chiropractic school, he had a vision for his own practice and instead of working for someone else, he hung out his own shingle and opened his own office.  To do so, he had to make some serious sacrifices (including moving home with his parents!), but he focused on executing his vision and has now built a successful practice and just moved his business into a new, larger office.  We talk about how his business has grown over the last four years, why he is passionate about health, not just treatment, and why injecting positivity into his morning routine has made him a better business owner.

Links, resources and show notes from this episode can be found here: Episode 012 Show Notes Page

Weber Family Chiropractics website http://www.weberfamilychiro.com

Weber Family Chiropractics Facebook Page

Weber Family Chiropractics Twitter @weberfamchiro

Thank you to Dustin for sharing your entreprenurial story with us and inspring all of those members of Hindsight Nation to follow their own dreams of one day having their own business.

To get new episodes delivered straight to your inbox, subscribe via email.

Jul 15, 2015

This week, my guest is entrepreneur and business owner Luke Luttrell, Chief Operating Officer and owner of NextLED Signs.  I have been friends with Luke for nearly two decades and am thrilled to share the story of his journey to becoming an entrepreneur.   Luke has spent more than a decade in the sign business, but about five years ago decided to take the leap and start his own company selling, installing and servicing LED signs.  You can check out some of their work at www.nextledsigns.com/.

Links, resources and show notes from this episode can be found here: Episode 011 Show Notes Page

Luke's personal Twitter @Luttrell27

NextLED website http://www.nextledsigns.com 

NextLED Twitter @nextledsigns 

Downtown Sign @DowntownSign

Thank you to Luke for sharing your entreprenurial story with us and inspring all of those members of Hindsight Nation to follow their own dreams of one day having their own business.

Lastly, thank you to MY VERY FIRST SPONSOR- Patricia Hoover and Great Image Designs for their contribution to The Benefit of Hindsight.  Check out Patricia's website for some of the very best Wichita State Shocker clothing you will find anywhere at http://greatimagedesigns.com/ And if you're interested, listen to Patricia's own very unique entreprenurial story on episode 4 of this show, you can find it at www.TheBenefitOfHindsight.com/episode004.

To get new episodes delivered straight to your inbox, subscribe via email.

Jul 8, 2015

This week, my guest is certified public accountant Russell Carswell.  I asked Russell to be my guest today for two reasons.  First, he has started his own business and is a part owner in his CPA firm Porter, Carswell & Raya.  But more importantly, as an accountant, Russell works with entrepreneurs every single day and sees all of the things that go into running a successful business. More than that, he sees them for all of his clients, and throughout his career has been able to advise and guide those business owners who have chosen him as their CPA to help improve the financial health of their businesses.

Too many business owners think of a CPA as someone who just files their taxes for them in April.  That could not be further from the truth.  A good CPA will manage your books for you, take care of quarterly estimated and payroll taxes, watch your spending and help advise you on what the right move is for the future of your company.  Is it cheap? No.  But in most cases, the fees you pay a CPA to manage the financial aspect of your business can be recouped simply by using that time to go out and build your business.  As the business owner, what is the most effective use of your time?  Trying to balance your books? Or developing contacts, networking, selling to customers and building your business?

Throughout his career, Russell has been a trusted advisor and financial expert for the business owners that are his clients.  He also has some pretty hysterical stories about his time in business.  I hope you enjoy listening to his interview as much as I enjoyed talking with him.

You can reach Russell by going to his CPA firm website at www.pcrcpa.com. You can call the Porter, Carswell & Raya offices at 316-755-0033 or you can email them at info@pcrcpa.com.

 

Or drop by their offices!

214 W Main St

Valley Center, KS 67147

Jul 1, 2015

Welcome back to The Benefit of Hindsight! This week, I am thrilled to bring you an interview with entrepreneur, podcaster and business coach Gail Foley.  Gail has lived in the Wichita area for over twenty years and during that time has connected with some amazing entrepreneurs and business owners.  Her story takes a dramatic shift a couple of years ago as she started to target what she realized was her niche- women entrepreneurs- and she began to develop a community around her of successful businesswomen from all kinds of different backgrounds.

 

Gail is a bit of an inspiration to me- she has been podcasting for years and has nearly 300 shows under her belt. She is also one of the most prolific podcasters I’ve ever met- she records and uploads a podcast nearly every single day. Many are interviews with the women in the community she is building, entrepreneurs from all over the world.  Others are just her talking about her life, her business and her podcast.  Regardless of the topic, Gail is an engaging, energetic businesswoman who has built a name for herself in our local community and online.

 

If you are interested in checking out Gail’s community, or you know a female business owner who should connect with Gail, check out her website at www.OneAwesomeCommunity.com.  You can also find her podcast available on her website, or in iTunes or on Stitcher.  Thank you for sharing your story and your passion with the community I am building, Gayle!

Jun 23, 2015

This week, I am excited to share my interview with David May.  David is the owner of Trinity Aero, an aerospace manufacturing firm located in Wichita, KS.  David purchased the business just over a year ago, in May 2014 and just celebrated his first year of ownership.  The year has been a series of ups and downs for David, but his drive and excitement for his company show in the amazing results they have posted over the last 12 months.

A few highlights from David’s interview:

He left a highly successful career in aerospace to venture out on his own into the world of entrepreneurship because he wanted to have more control over his work and his business.  But he didn’t jump in blindly. He took his time, asked a lot of questions and found a company that was in a position to be sold and he jumped on it.

David’s team is his number one priority, and running a people-focused business is key to his success.  Happy, engaged employees do phenomenal work and take care of their customers. This is one of David’s biggest takeaways- if you take care of your people, they will take care of your business.

David is a man of great faith and he does not shy away from the fact that he runs his business as a Christian.  In fact, it’s posted right on the wall in his office.  Very few people are as willing to wear their faith on their sleeves as David is, but it serves to fulfill him and makes it clear to those around him what his priorities are.

You can check out David’s team at their website, www.trinityaero.net, on their Facebook page by going to Facebook.com and searching for Trinity Aero, or their LinkedIn page by going to LinkedIn.com and searching for Trinity Aero.

Jun 16, 2015

This week, I am proud to bring you my interview with Dr. Megan Baldwin, the owner of The Eye Gallery.  When she graduated from optometry school, Dr. Baldwin could have easily gotten a job working in an established optometrist’s office but instead decided to take the tougher route and open her own office.  Megan’s story is certainly unique in that she knew exactly what she wanted to do, where she wanted her office and what clientele she wanted to serve.  She hired a marketing firm to help her lay out a plan and then got to work building an office.  Once that was done, she then got to work on building a practice.

A few notes from Megan’s interview:

  • Knowing exactly what she wanted ahead of time saved her a lot of trouble when making a decision on where to build her office.
  • Her biggest struggle is one I’ve heard from many entrepreneurs and business owners- hiring and keeping good help is difficult.
  • As a manager, she has had to figure out how to keep a professional distance from her employees while fostering a work culture that makes people want to work for her.

Check out Megan’s website at:

www.eyegalleryks.com 

The Eye Gallery of Kansas

2146 Collective Ln #110

Wichita, KS 67206

(316) 315-0321

https://www.facebook.com/TheEyeGalleryWichita

Jun 10, 2015

This week’s episode of The Benefit of Hindsight is going to take us to Lee’s Summit, Missouri to speak to Richard Smith, owner of Lee’s Summit Builders and BRS Construction.  Rich, now mostly retired, has been a small business owner for most of his life. He started working at his father’s lumberyard during his childhood and ended up purchasing the business from his father at the age of 27.  In order to get more business running through the lumberyard, he decided to start a small construction company.  Before too long, he was so busy building that it was his full-time job.

Throughout a lifetime of construction, Rich has more stories than we could possibly get through in one setting, but some of the highlights include why he switched from residential construction to commercial construction, why he pays his people more than anyone else, and what he had to do when he broke his back and was no longer able to do the do the physical labor of construction.  When life throws you a curveball, you have to be able to adjust and Rich made an incredible adjustment by going to work as a project manager and within two years had been promoted to the Sr. Vice President and General Manager for the entire Kansas City market.  He goes on to talk about how he delved into developing a residential development from a piece of farm land and how being debt free during the recession saved him from going out of business when every other developer in town was struggling.

A few lessons to take from Rich’s success:

1. Plan the day ahead of time- Rich plans his day out the night before so there is never a question of what he will accomplish the next day and he can hit the ground running in the morning.

2. Get started early- Rich tries to get the majority of his work done before noon so that he knows he will have a profitable day.  He was often the first one in the office in the morning so he could get everything ready for the day.

3. Pay your people well and keep them busy.  Rich was lucky enough to work with the same crew throughout his career and his people were committed to him because he paid them what they were worth.  Make sure you listen to the story of when a union representative tried to get his crew to unionize.

Jun 3, 2015

When Tony Madrigal started selling insurance, he had no idea what he would accomplish in his lifetime.  When he struck out on his own more than 35 years ago and founded Madrigal and Welch Insurance with his partner John Welch, he knew he was on track to build a company that would leave a legacy…even if he didn’t have the business to support it yet.  Tony’s story is truly one of building a legacy throughout a lifetime and the company he has built that bears his name is a testament to the work he has done.  But that’s not all. Tony also shares stories of taking the greatest risk of his life, how he was surprised by an $18,000 tax bill and what it took for him to be one of the most successful insurance salesmen in the country.

Visit the Madrigal and Associates website at http://www.madrigalinsurance.com/

Like their facebook page at https://www.facebook.com/MadrigalInsurance

May 27, 2015

In this episode of The Benefit of Hindsight, I sit down with Patricia Hoover, owner of Great Image Patricia Hoover HeadshotDesigns and we talk about how she purchased her business, how she became NCAA licensed to design and sell Wichita State University apparel and what she would have done differently.   If you have ever considered buying an existing business, Patricia’s story will have some great advice for you.

Follow Great Image Designs on Facebook at Great Image Designs Facebook Page.

Great Image Designs StorefrontOr visit their storefront located in downtown Wichita, KS at:

433 N. Washington St
Wichita, KS
Near the corner of Central and Washington.

May 20, 2015

In this episode of The Benefit of Hindsight, we talk to Mandy Berkley, owner of Swept Away Massage and former owner of Mickey’s Frozen Yogurt.  Mandy is actually going to talk today about her yogurt shop, which closed in 2014.  Why did she decide to open a yogurt shop? How did she figure out all of the complexities involved in starting a retail business?  How did she know it was time to think about shutting the business down?  Many pulls no punches and gives great advice to anyone else who has ever considered starting a frozen yogurt shop.

 

Mandy’s story is one that every business owner or inspiring entrepreneur should hear because it could literally save your business.

 

Visit Mandy’s Facebook page at https://www.facebook.com/pages/Swept-Away-Massage

May 13, 2015

This week, I talk to Mike Seybert, owner of Radical Bubbles Ultrasonic Blind Cleaning.  Mike talks about how he was forced out of the rat race by being laid off but instead of jumping back in and finding another job, he and his wife decided to strike out on their own and started a business instead.  Mike’s story should resonate with a lot of people, if you've ever been laid off, worried about losing your income or just wanted to get out of your 9 to 5 to start your own business.

Follow Mike on Twitter at @RadicalBubbles

Check out his Facebook Page at Radical Bubbles Facebook Page.

If you’re interested in hiring Radical Bubbles to clean your blinds, you can contact them at 316-204-4694 or on their website at www.radicalbubbles.com.

May 8, 2015

The Benefit of Hindsight Podcast

Episode 001

Liz Anderson

In the very first episode of The Benefit of Hindsight Podcast, I interview Liz Anderson of PostNet Wichita. We discuss how she and her husband decided to open a PostNet franchise and what they have learned along the way.

This and all episodes of The Benefit of Hindsight can be found at www.TheBenefitOfHindsight.com/episode001.

1